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A timeline of Soviet Olympic historical past


‘If you wish to be like me, simply practice!’  1951 poster selling the fundamental bodily coaching system within the Soviet Union.  The person within the image has the coat of arms of the Soviet Union on his high, indicating he competes at worldwide stage.  Image courtesy of A Soviet Poster A Day

Jim Riordan revealed his article, ‘The Rise and Fall of Soviet Olympic Champions’, in 1993.   In 1992 the Soviet Union, below the aegis of the Commonwealth of Impartial States, had made its final hoorah on the Olympic Video games.  The Barcelona Olympics had additionally marked the fortieth anniversary of the Soviet Union’s participation of their first Video games, at Helsinki in 1952.  Soviet women and men had dominated the creative gymnastics competitions at each.

Within the following timeline I extract from Riordan’s article key factors resulting in the accession of the Soviet Union to the Worldwide Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1951.  It makes for fascinating studying, addressing such key themes as

  • State involvement in sport
  • Reward and reprisal for sporting success
  • Relations between East and West
  • Sport as a diplomatic instrument, and weapon
  • Olympic values; amateurism and professionalism

Within the forty years since1952 sport had modified considerably.  The Soviet Union’s state help for its athletes was thought-about to go in opposition to the Olympic spirit of newbie effort and participation, and key political figures had opposed their accession to the IOC on these grounds.  But by 1992 the Olympic rings had turn out to be a robust business image, and sports activities sponsorship a serious supply of earnings for each sporting our bodies and the best profile athletes.  By 2012 business renumeration for athletes and sporting our bodies has turn out to be at the least as widespread as state renumeration worldwide.  Russian Gymnastics is supported considerably by VTB Financial institution (President of the Russian Gymnastics Federation, Andrei Kostin, can also be Chairman of the VTB Administration Board) and the nation’s sports activities coverage goes hand in hand with youth and tourism because the nation invests closely in sporting infrastructure and amenities for such occasions because the 2014 Winter Olympic Video games and the 2018 Soccer World Cup.

A lot of the meat of what occurred in the course of the years coated by the timeline (1894-1951, with an emphasis on the post-Struggle years between 1947 and 1951) remains to be – simply – inside residing reminiscence.  The present management of the Russian gymnastics group are too younger to have been instantly concerned in the important thing occasions, however the scarring is deep and reaches effectively past Moscow.  The Russian sense of paranoia at each poor competitors consequence (eg Valentina Rodionenko’s latest declaration that ‘The Judges Scare Us‘) mirrors earlier state considerations that Soviet defeats may be taken as a slur on the nationwide character and used as a chance to ‘fling mud on the entire nation’ (Romanov, 1987, cited by Riordan, 1993: 26).  The distant reminiscence of the execution of two main sports activities figures within the Nineteen Fifties following poor efficiency at worldwide competitions can not help the inclination to take issues arduous.  Within the wider context of Stalin’s purges which touched virtually each household within the Soviet Union, such occasions turn out to be widespread reminiscence and shared despair.

The West’s suspicion of Russia additionally finds at the least some clarification right here: Riordan mentions calls for made on sporting federations within the Nineteen Forties and Nineteen Fifties: for Russian to be accepted as an official language, for the inclusion of Soviet members of government committees.  It was 1976 earlier than Soviet Yuri Titov grew to become President of the FIG (impartial Switzerland held the President’s seat up till that point) however by then Russian had turn out to be the principal language of the game through which the Code of Factors was drafted.  A lot of the mental capital within the sport resided within the Soviet Union, and its dominance of the game in the course of the 60s, 70s and 80s can be ceaselessly recorded because of the naming of abilities after these gymnasts first to carry out them.

One of many first issues that occurred in 1993 was {that a} new Code of Factors was revealed – in English.  Hearsay has it {that a} good Russian language translation solely grew to become obtainable weeks earlier than the April World Championships, leaving many gymnasts with pitifully little time to arrange new routines.  Russian has solely just lately been reinstated as an official language of the FIG, however by now Russia has misplaced the initiative because of the migration of so lots of its main lights to abroad programmes, and the ensuing dissipation of the teaching and analysis effort as coaches compete fairly than collaborate.  Inept enhancing of the varied variations of the Code of Factors has led to at the least one important marking debacle, on the 2010 World Championships.  The sporting political compass has swung within the People’ favour as a simplistic Code of Factors displays their strengths and minimises the influence of their weaknesses.

I’m wondering what Russia will do subsequent, will they have the ability to reclaim the initiative?

Since Riordan’s article was written, East has shifted West, and far of Russia is perceived as European.  Once we communicate of the ‘East’ at this time we usually imply China and Asia, however Riordan’s references to ‘the East’ imply a lot of the Japanese bloc international locations, together with amongst others Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Poland in addition to the Soviet Union.  Don’t forget that the Soviet Union embraced a monster assortment of now unbiased states who at this time compete in gymnastics below their very own flags, together with Ukraine, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Estonia in addition to Russia.  Keep in mind that Riordan’s factors are about sporting coverage at a nationwide and worldwide stage, whereas in competitors the people symbolize themselves and their sport; for all of the political manipulations occurring East and West athletes and coaches are engrossed of their work, and coverage turns into secondary if not invisible.

I’m researching quite a few points to which his article pertains, however wished to deal with a chronicle of Soviet Olympic historical past.  This appears significantly well timed given the upcoming Olympic Video games and you’ll usually solely take into account the current and future by understanding the previous.

This weblog submit is figure in progress.  I very a lot welcome feedback.

1894         
Russia was one of many dozen founding members of the trendy Olympic motion.
1908
Russian group competed on the Olympics
1911
Russian Nationwide Olympic Committee got here into being
1912
Russian group competed on the Olympics
1917
The Russian Revolution.  Russian management ignored ‘bourgeois’ sports activities organisations and competitions.   The Olympic Video games have been thought-about to ‘deflect staff from the category wrestle and to coach them for brand new imperialist wars’. 
Twenties
Stress in opposition to aggressive sports activities continues; anti Olympic feeling because the sports activities embraced have been thought-about to mirror ‘the social distinctions and privileges present in Western society’.
Throughout this time, there was an emphasis on ‘employee sports activities organisations’.  This mirrored a sense that Russia was poorly related and of little affect on the worldwide scene.  Coverage was being led by Communist Worldwide (or Comintern) and the subsidiary physique, Crimson Sport Worldwide
1932-1936
The USSR snubs the IOC by organising parallel Employee Video games and declining to take part within the Olympics
1939-1945    
World Struggle II leads to an altered steadiness of energy in Europe, with ten Soviet-aligned states rising between 1945 and 1949.  This rebalancing lies on the root of the following Chilly Struggle between West and East that formed worldwide politics for a few years, and offered the premise for new eager about the significance of sport as a theatre of worldwide competitors and a platform to display ideological superiority.
Concurrently, home sport within the USSR was growing, and starting to be thought-about robust sufficient to win in worldwide competitors, thus demonstrating the ‘vitality’ of the Soviet system.
1947
Soviet sports activities recognise the necessity to hitch worldwide federations and adjust to worldwide sporting guidelines, thus resulting in a favouring of medals and badges as reward, fairly than monetary remuneration.
Inside the IOC management sure distinguished figures (J Sigfrid Edstrom (President of the IOC), Avery Brundage (Edstrom’s successor as President of the IOC) and Colonel P W Scharroo) really feel hostile in the direction of, and suspicious of the USSR on grounds of the state involvement within the coaching of its athletes (‘the authorities makes use of sport to extend the navy and financial energy of the Russians’, reported Scharroo in November 1947).  Athletes and officers have been seen solely as ‘pawns’ of the state, unable to be free and unbiased and ‘solely numbers within the state’.  Moreover, the nationwide federations have been unable to evolve to the newbie spirit of the IOC: athletes have been basically full time staff of the state, receiving bonuses for setting information and profitable victories in opposition to abroad rivals.  Worse, they have been topic to extreme reprisals for failures.  Whereas some may deal with the latter assertion with some doubt, the memoirs of Sports activities Minister Nikolai Romanov counsel in any other case (see the quote from his memoirs, under).
1948
Amid rumours that the USSR had been invited by the IOC to hitch the Olympic Video games, there may be, throughout the USSR, mounting opposition to Olympism on the grounds of the motion’s ‘bourgeois’ background, and doubts as as to if the Soviet Union may mount an efficient sporting problem on a world stage.  Any dialogue or dissent is discouraged by a purge of these holding opposing opinions; scholar athletes of the Stalin Institute of Bodily Tradition and the Military Bodily Coaching School have been expelled.  Many Jewish sporting figures – teachers and medics – have been arrested and accused of ‘anti-patriotic’ deviations.  Lastly, the Soviet authorities denounced the IOC.  The Soviet Union didn’t compete on the 1948 Olympics and a ‘employee Olympics’ to incorporate all of the states of Japanese Europe was proposed.
The defeat of the Soviet pace skaters within the European Championship led to the sacking of sports activities minister Romanov and his substitute by former safety pressure deputy chief Apollonov.  Riordan speculates that this was at the least partly to ‘put the worry of God’ into athletes and coaches.
The Soviet Union sends a small group of observers to the 1948 London Olympic Video games, with a purpose to assess the chance of securing victories in 1952. 
1949
Communist Celebration decision on sport decreed that each one sports activities committees have been ‘to unfold sport to each nook of the land, to lift the extent of ability and, on that foundation, to assist Soviet athletes win world supremacy in main sports activities within the speedy future’  (Novikov, 1949, cited by Riordan, 1993: 26)
The foundations of Soviet sports activities are laid, together with the creation of sports activities faculties, and the Soviet Union sports activities federations now joined the vast majority of the foremost worldwide sporting federations and started to participate in worldwide sport.  Parallel developments are going down within the West, who recognise the worth of friendship and communication relations with the USSR.  
We see a big hardening within the USSR angle to sporting participation.  Nikolai Romanov, chair of the Authorities Committee on Tradition and Sport, information in his memoirs (1987, cited by Riordan, 1993: 26) :
‘… we have been pressured to ensure victory, in any other case the ‘free’ bourgeois press would fling mud on the entire nation in addition to our athletes … to realize permission to go to worldwide tournaments I needed to ship a particular observe to Stalin guaranteeing the victory.’
By late 1949, the Soviet management had reconciled itself to the thought of taking part within the 1952 Helsinki Video games.  They reassured a disquieted IOC management, involved that state help for the Soviet Union’s athletes amounted to professionalism and a breach of the Olympic spirit, that athletes may qualify for the Video games below Olympic guidelines.  Brundage mentioned :
‘if we conform to elementary Olympic rules and observe our guidelines and rules we can’t probably acknowledge any Communist Olympic committee’ (7th December 1950).
1950
Principals of the Stalin Institute of Bodily Tradition and the Military Bodily Coaching School, S M Frumin and Normal Kalpus, have been arrested, tried for spying and shot.
1951
The newly fashioned USSR Olympic Committee applies to the IOC for  admission and is accepted.  Whereas membership of different sporting federations had been accompanied by particular calls for, eg Russian be an official language, and a Soviet consultant to hitch the Government Committee, this membership request was made with out situation.
Riordan means that the the Soviet Union’s want to hitch the IOC stemmed from wider macro political, and sporting points.  Inside the Soviet Union, (i) the decline of Stalin and his maintain on coverage, (ii) the dearth of help for the ‘Employee Video games’ from different states behind the Iron Curtain, and (iii) a softening in worldwide coverage and a want for peaceable co-existence following the growth of the Soviet Union’s personal atomic forces all performed a component.  On the sporting entrance, the robust chance of the nation reaching victories additionally offered robust motivation
The IOC’s about flip and acceptance of the Soviet Union into its membership appears to have been motivated by a want to keep away from a serious political upheaval, particularly within the wake of the acceptance of West Germany a yr beforehand, regardless of robust protest from Nice Britain.

References
Novikov, I (1949) ‘Bolshoi sport I vneshnyaya politika’ Kultura I zhizn¸ 11 January 1949
Riordan, J (1993) ‘The Rise and Fall of Soviet Olympic Champions’ Olympika: The Worldwide Journal of Olympic Research Vol II, 1993 pp 25-44
Romanov, N N (1987) Trudnye dorogi ok Olimpu Moscow: Fizkultura i sport



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